Monday, May 25, 2020

The Most Valuable Mechanisms Designed During The Late 1800...

Abstract The Kinetoscope was one most valuable mechanisms designed in the late 1800’s. This remarkable invention opened doors for the way that visuals and sound are produced in movies and television today. However, it is unclear who actually gets credit for the Invention. This paper will enlighten you on the accomplishments of many great inventors. You will be educated on how this device came about. It will also unravel the mystery behind who should actually get credit for the Kinetoscope. Introduction A common luxury in America today is television and movies, but have you ever wondered how visual entertainment on screen began? Since the late 1800’s the way we view things in cinema has changed profoundly. Living in the 21st Century, in which is the digital revolution, we no longer have to leave our homes to see a movie or event. How did it all start? Who came up with the idea? Who built the first camera? How did it have an impact on cinema today? Credit must be given to an early motion picture device called the Kinetoscope, which set the standard for all cinematic projections that we have today. The Idea that Impacted Cinema Thomas Edison, one of the greatest inventors known to man, came up with an idea to make an instrument which does for the eye what the Phonograph has done for the ear. The Phonograph records and reproduces things in motion and that is what Edison wanted for the Kinetoscope. In October 1888 Edison started organizing this invention. HeShow MoreRelatedTerm Paper About Sports2816 Words   |  12 Pagespopular in North America for the past 30 years, soccer has been a long time favorite most everywhere else. It is the national sport of most European and Latin-American countries, and of many other nations. Millions of people in more than 140 countries play soccer. The sport datesback to the Egyptians, who played games involving the kicking of a ball.Now, the sport has grown to a global pastime, including men s and women steams, and the World Cup (which is played every four years). The sport isRead MoreSigmund Freud and his Five Psychosexual Development Stages2077 Words   |  8 Pagesquote enforced the everyday progression that your mind must undergo to become the most valuable and productive mind possible. One’s personality differentiates them from the other 7 billion persons upon the planet. Some believe you come into the world with your personality traits already present as a predisposition and others believe that they are developed outside of the womb. Sigmund Schlomo Freud was one of the most popular and controversial theological psychologist believed that there were certainRead MoreFood Processing And Its Effects On Population Health3424 Words   |  14 Pagesfood processing is often improperly defined. Although a lack of food processing regulations today may pose health concerns for the modern consumer due to its association with chemical additives and unnatural transformations, food processing in its most basic form can be defined quite simply as any procedure undergone by food commodities after they have left the primary producer, and before they reach the consumer† (Welch, 2000). Therefore, food processing in and of itself is an extremely broad industryRead MoreHistory of Internet10240 Words   |  41 Pagespowerful computers, Britain becomes the world’s first technological superpower. Its first foreign adventure is to intervene in the American Civil War on the side of the U.S. South, which splits the United States into four feuding republics. By the mid-1800s, the world is trying to cope with the multiple afflictions of the twentieth century: credit cards, armored tanks, and fast-food restaurants. Alternative histories are fun, but history is serious business. 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A division of Amalgamated Bean Coffee Trading Company Ltd. (ABCTCL), it is commonly known as Coffee Day or CCD. It opened its first cafe in 1996 on Brigade Road in Bangalore, and today has the largest cafe retail chain in India - with 650 cafes in 110 cities. Headquartered in Bangalore, a majority of its cafes are also located in Bangalore. The cafe chain has had much success

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Women in Sports and Sports Broadcasting Essay - 584 Words

Women in Sports and Sports Broadcasting Before I conducted this media analysis about women in sports and sport broadcasting, I hypothesized the obvious - that more male sports would be in the media, and that there would be more male sports broadcasters as well. Through my observations I did find that the sports arena and sports broadcasting sphere are male dominated. However, I also found that although there are not many stories about women, there has been a steady progression and magazines like Sports Illustrated are becoming bold enough to highlight women athletes in a magazine that is targeted towards a male audience. Although women still have a long way to go, they are making some headway into the male-dominated sports arena.†¦show more content†¦The only empowering story I found was a feature about the Notre Dame vs. UCLA women?s soccer match?and this only contained a picture and a brief summary of the game. Most print media sports stories are written by men?even the articles that are about women. This s hows that males dominate the journalism field in general. It is funny that men can be experts on women and women in sport. This might also show that men are interested in women?s sport, realizing that the women?s sport movement is an important movement and should be given some credit. On all four of the news broadcasts I watched, men dominated the broadcasting. With the exception of the Merril Lynch Celebrity Ski Classic Cup, which had two male broadcasters and two female reporters, the broadcasts were either male dominated (with one woman reporter) or only contained men. I found that sports such as skiing or running exhibit more gender equality than male dominated sports like football, baseball or basketball. Women have come a long way, and are actually beginning to find a more significant place in sports media. Men are starting to take women more seriously?both on the field and in the news station. I was ecstatic to read a SI letter to the editor, written by a man that read, Maybe we should show a little respect for the women?s accomplishment? (SI, November 2004)?it gave me hope. Through this analysis, I gained a stronger appreciation for sports media, and became more optimistic about womenShow MoreRelatedFemale Athletes And Sports Teams Essay1581 Words   |  7 PagesEssay Female athletes and sports leagues are viewed as less important than men’s professional athletics. This is because gender stereotypes are still evident in our society, which is shown in the way women are presented in sports media and that sports leadership roles are mainly male oriented in our society. There is a small percentage of female voicing at the higher levels of sports organizations, in Australian and Canadian leagues. This reflects why we need more women at the heads of these organizationRead MoreDouble Standard1398 Words   |  6 PagesStandard Women of our time are beginning to break into this male dominated news industry. A recent survey from Ball State University showed that 99% of all broadcast newsrooms have female employees and that now women make up more than 40% of the total broadcast workforce (Papper, 2005). That same survey unfortunately showed that only 10% of local sports reporters are women and that 7% of local sports anchors are women (Sheffer, 2007). These numbers show that women are breaking into the broadcasting industryRead MoreThe Sports World, A Male-Dominated Field, Has Not Given1482 Words   |  6 PagesThe sports world, a male-dominated field, has not given women enough opportunities to perform and grow at a level equivalent to their male counterparts. In particular, female sports broadcasters continue to bear the brunt of hatred and sexism from male and female critics alike. These critics are making themselves known more and more on social media, especially Twitter. Social media has grown to become this major platform for people to express themselves freely and to reach out to celebrities, athletesRead MoreAttendance Vs Nba Attendance : Stats, Marketing Strategies, And The Reasoning Behind The Discrepancy1718 Words   |  7 PagesRains-Turk California Lutheran University Abstract WNBA attendance and NBA attendance vary significantly. Is this variation a result of women’s professional sports not having a large fan base, differing marketing strategies used by the WNBA and the NBA, less attention to women’s professional sports by the media and sports broadcasting networks, or a combination of all three of these issues? Through the use of statistical data, one can determine that attendance levels are favorable to the NBA asRead MoreFemale Athletes And Male Athletes1741 Words   |  7 Pagesathletes in modern sports. In today’s sports society, women athletes are still discriminated against based on lower salaries, less media coverage, and lack of opportunity. Female athletes are discriminated against in modern sports because they have lower salaries than the male athletes. Over the years the wage gap between male and female athletes has increased tremendously. The wage gap that has been viewed as one of the most extraordinary is the gap between men and women basketball playersRead MoreImpact Of Sports On Society1371 Words   |  6 Pages1920’s Impact of Sports on Society The 1920’s were an important time period in America’s history. The horrors of World War one were at long last over and society was collectively ready to move on to greener pastures. Americans proceeded vigorously to make life feel more refined than before the war. From the mass production of automobiles and the automation of everything imaginable to the rebirth of African-American culture and fine arts, the world had drastically changed. One such instrument inRead MoreSports Media Essay1063 Words   |  5 PagesSports of old were merely competitive activities rooted in heroism and romanticism. Sports activities today, however, have no such innocence or simplicity. Currently in America, the activities that make up our sports culture is not only the competitive events themselves but the processes and issues that underlie and surround them. Entwined in our sports culture is the giant business of mass broadcasting. Indeed, sports and the media go hand in hand like peanut butter and jelly, like Mickey andRead MoreThe Commercialisation, Professionalization And Equity Of Sport1714 Words   |  7 Pagesprofessionalization and equity of sport has changed from the 1950s to today. This piece of work will also discuss the different techniques and strategies that organisations within sport used to commercialise, professionalise and set social stratification. The worldwide interest in sport is phenomenal, regardless of your skin colour, religion, health, social status, gender and home nation. Sport is a universal platform for happiness, revenue and success. Even though sport has made the leap from just loveRead MoreSwot Analysis : Adam Stern s Article Indycar1297 Words   |  6 Pagesdespite setbacks in terms of cancelled events and loss of sponsors. Stern also touches briefly on what one can expect from the racing series in the coming years. In SportBusiness Journal’s piece on 2016’s game changers, they introduce the reader to 35 women who all in some shape or form is changing the industry through new key initiatives, the development of new technologies and as mentors for younger executives looking to advance their own careers. Daniel Caplan’s Moving picture is about the formerRead MoreMedia Coverage of Sports, Questions and Answers894 Words   |  4 PagesQuestion #1: Step-by-step analysis of mediated sport â€Å"Magazines are different from other forms of media in their ‘exceptional’ capacity to shape social life† (Kennedy Hills, 2009 p. 96 para.3). This statement encapsulates the drive and focus of magazine media; by focusing on the current issues to help form the values, norms and beliefs of the readers. Sports Illustrated (SI) had a feature story dealing with the mystery surrounding the star running back for the Denver Broncos, Knowshon Moreno

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about The Unholy Trinity as a Reverse Allegory

Edward Spencer celebrated allegorical writing with his classic romantic epic The Faerie Queen. Even as Milton criticized the use of allegory, he indubitably implemented the use of it in Paradise Lost. Although Milton does use allegory, his use of the form tremendously differs from that of Spencer. His application of allegory is a reversal of the typical Spenserian allegory. Milton uses a reverse allegory as an abstract representation of the Holy Trinity of God, the Son, and the Holy Spirit by an Unholy Trinity of Satan, Sin and Death. As indicated by Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, an allegory is: a figurative sentence or discourse, in which the principle subject is described by another subject resembling in its†¦show more content†¦Satan deceives all in his presence, even the fallen angels whom he claims as his peers, whereas, God is not capable fabrication. Pride is also another example of an attribute to the Father of Deceit and in veracity the most influential attribute to Satans character. His pride leads him to avenge war in heaven and to return to Earth to deceive Man: New war, provokt; our better part remains/To work in close design by fraud or guile/What force has effected not: that he has no less/At length from us may find, who overcomes/By force, hath overcome but half his foe. Satan cannot back down from God without a fight. Even though he admits that God was the Potent Victor, he claims that God may have won the battle, but not the war. Satan must fulfill his pride by retaliation. Along with Satans pride and thoughts of deceit in Heaven comes Sin, his daughter. Sin sprang from the left side of Satans head when he formulated the plot of rebellion in Heaven. Sin is perceived as a representation of the Son because she is formed in the perfect image of Satan just as the Son is a perfect manifestation of the image of God; therefore, Sin is an ideal contradiction to the image of

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Progress in Artificial Intelligence Technique - Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss about the Progress in Artificial Intelligence Technique. Answer: Introduction Background The current globalized society has been facing tremendous change in the information technology and the internet. In this context, human interaction has been transformed by an implementation of artificial intelligence. The cognitive interfaces help in providing new platforms for interaction between machine and humans. These contain graphical user interfaces (GUIs) navigation system including hypertext and option selection buttons and menus (Michalski, Carbonell and Mitchell 2013). The Ubiquitous Computing focuses on effective human interaction with technological components including artificial intelligence. Chatterbot conversation includes an exchange of texts and languages including dealing with ambiguous situations context-based messages. However, chatterbots are used in various fields including entertaining others by making coherent conversation (Nilsson 2014). A machine learns from the algorithm feeder input for working. However, these algorithms cannot hold and understand of data concept. Therefore, a large amount of data and information cannot be input in the algorithm. This has created self-fulfilling strategies for communication among the robots. The literature review will present the concept of AIML and its different functionality. The use of pattern recognition techniques helps in creating the language for communicating with each other. This paper will focus on the development of the language for robots in order to perform chatting with other bots. This research will use a proper methodology for proceeding in the research. The use of Artificial Intelligence in this process will be researched in this study. The concept of the artificial intelligence in the South Africa will be discussed. The impact of the robots and other chatterbots on the economic, legal and business perspective in the country will be discussed. Rationale Modern information technology has been focusing on the artificial intelligence in the 21st century. However, the change in the methodology of the technology in the worked has allowed transforming various algorithms in the IT sector (Cohen and Feigenbaum 2014). The exponential growth of IT in the market has been focusing on the concept of the Artificial Intelligence. Robotics and other chatterbots have been created to decrease the human work. There has been a peaceful transition in the democratic of South Africa in 1994. The lack of education in the primary and secondary level have a major cause for obtaining the low score in the education sector. According to OECD 2008 review of national policies in South Africa (Navigli and Ponzetto 2012). However, 15% to 18% of school students are qualifying the school exams per year. Therefore, the literacy rate of the country has been continuously increasing (Hovy, Navigli and Ponzetto 2013). However, this rate is slower than other countries in t he world. The use of the technology in the studies have been less in the country. Therefore, students are not able to maintain the technical knowledge of the school. This has been created the problem in the literacy rate of the country. However, robotics has been provided in the country for the students, Robotic technology is being studied in the schools and colleges of the country. According to a survey, there has been a massive change in an enhancement of technical knowledge from 4% to 7% (Brodie, Mylopoulos and Schmidt 2012). As commented by Yang and Xu (2013), This total rose to around 1.5 million in 2014 and is projected to increase to about 1.9 million in 2017.5 Japan has the largest number with 306,700, followed by North America (237,400), China (182,300), South Korea (175,600), and Germany (175,200) (Geraci 2012). Overall, robotics is expected to rise from a $15 billion sector now to $67 billion by 2025. According to RBC Global Asset Management study, the cost of automation and robots have been falling down frequently. This has led to the increase in the development of robots all over the word (Brady, Gerhardt and Davidson 2012). Therefore, there is a risk of the robots start communication with each other by creating own language. However, increase in use of robots in the replace have increased the unemployment of human being in companies. Robots are replacing the human work in an efficient way. This research has focused on identifying the issues faced due to self-communication by the robots by creating their own language. The factors that are affecting the work pressure if the workplace in an organization is also mentioned. The language required for preparing algorithm has been discussed in the report. Problem Statement The primary problem discussed in the study will be the own communication of robots by developing language. Reports have identified various challenges are faced due to this problem. Therefore, this study will help in identifying challenges due to this approach of robots and other chatterbots. These have created the problem in maintenance of robots in the laboratory due to own communication of robots. Research Aim, Objectives and questions The aim of the research is to analyze language for communication between robots and other bots. The objectives of a research study are provided below: To analyze the basic concepts of robotics and artificial intelligence To understand the language created by robots for mutual communication To identify the challenges imposed due to communication of robots with each other in their own language To recommend strategies for mitigating these challenges in the robots Following are the research questions for the research: What are the basic concepts of robotics and artificial intelligence? How are the robots communicating with each other by creating own language? What are the challenges faced due to communication among robots by creating their own language? What can be done to mitigate these challenges related to communication among robots by creating own language? Significance of research This research study will focus on the concepts of artificial intelligence and its benefits and challenges in the industry. The concept of communicating of robots with each other by creating own language will be discussed in the research. The study aims at understanding various concepts of communication among each other by developing own language. Therefore, this framework might create challenges for the researchers in the field. These challenges will be identified in this study. The problem of own communication of robots will be depicted in the study. Summary This chapter has discussed the basic scenario of the artificial intelligence in the market in the context of South Africa. The aim of the research has been initiated in this chapter. The objectives and research questions have been provided in the chapter that helps in proceeding with the study. Literature Review Concept of Artificial Intelligence As commented by Yampolskiy (2013), artificial intelligence focuses on the work processes of machines requiring intelligence performed by humans. Therefore, artificial intelligence refers to investigating intelligent problem-solving behaviour by developing computer systems. However. This technology has been mostly in use by the researchers in the lab. The use of technology has been an important aspect in the development of new devices and artefacts. The Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research (CAIR) is a group initiative of Statistics, Computer Science and School of mathematics unit for industrial growth in the market (Kanal and Kumar 2012). The current focus of the institute is to promote a concept of artificial intelligence and knowledge of computer engineering among individuals in the society. CAIR is mainly working on the development of artificial intelligence in the market. The computational models of human thought processes have helped in communicating with the artefacts. Ho wever, Nolfi, Bongard, Husbands and Floreano (2013) commented that artificial intelligence is an implementation of human thoughts on the computer. The use of artificial intelligence has helped in maintaining a keen relationship with machines and human beings. Chatterbots and pattern recognition As commented by Ginsberg (2012), various tests have been done to acknowledge between human and machine. Modern technology has created various clones similar to the human beings. These b0ts can perform all works similar to the human beings including daily routine work. These bots are efficient to perform daily duties including washing, cooking, caring and other duties of the human being. Therefore, Turing test has been performed on these machines for distinguishing between them. Therefore, this test is recognized as a chatterbot itself. Frankish and Ramsey (2014) defined chatter bot as a program that helps in stimulating typed conversation for aiming at least fooling human beings temporarily during the conversation with another person. Chatterbots can be classified in the form of techniques that are used in the development of various devices. For example, during the 90's, the second-generation chatterbots were built and the Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques were applied, such as Artificial Neural Networks in conjunction with NLP techniques (Ingrand and Ghallab 2014). JULIA chatterbot is an example of a second-generation chatterbot developed by Michael Mauldin in 1994 (Deisenroth, Neumann and Peters 2013). However, the development of the third-generation uses the Pattern Recognition Techniques. The motivation for using the AIML language has been dining in the pattern recognition system (Kober and Peters 2012). The features of the AIML language implemented in developing chatter bot include ease of implementation of AIML language based on markup language for making easy use of dialogues written in the code. Various computational systems help developers in developing chatterbots for web deployment user access. However, a high level of recycling process has been done in the chatterbots projects for developing open source software license. Pattern Recognition for Chatter bots modelling Various theories and models are used for the development of chatterbots include Pattern recognition, that aims at modelling computing system which is based on human dialogues. The use of AIML languages helps in providing different chatter bits that can adopt pattern recognition technique. Zang et al. (2015) commented that ALICE was the first chatterbot that was developed by using AIML language. It has three operations including performing word processing actions for fitting input by a user, the pattern is matched between input provided by user and input provided by a designer (Szegedy et al. 2017). Therefore, the pattern recognition system has been installed in the chatterbots that help in recognizing different patterns in the daily life. It helps in providing various work in the daily life including road crossing and walking. The patterns are matched with the database of the robot and accordingly, it works. Big data and artificial intelligence have been maintaining a bi-directional relationship with each other. As commented by Tirgul and Naik (2016), Artificial intelligence requires machine learning, which requires a large amount of data. A protocol will be developed for communicating among the robots. Each robot will send the request to another robot for initiating communication. In the presence of another homogeneous robot, it accepts the request and starts communicating with each other. The robots will send their personal information for connecting with other robots (Bostrom and Yudkowsky 2014). The other robots will acknowledge it by sending a message to the sender robot. Therefore, this will create a connection between them to initiate communication. In this process, the header part of the message is stored in the robot that helps in acknowledging back about the received message. However, some messag e is not delivered to the receiver robot that creates the problem in communicating with the robot (Bongard 2013). The IR radiation will be used in order to maintain the communication among robots. Robots will transmit same infrared rays in case of either correct or incorrect messages received. Therefore, it becomes difficult of differentiating the signals transmitted from robot (Pfeifer, Lungarella and Iida 2012). The first phase will be IR transmission. IR transmitter will be attached in each of the robots that might help in transmitting IR rays for initiating communication. The use of the AIML language has helped in developing chatter bits and robots. The IR receiver will receive the infrared rays coming from another robot. After receiving infrared rays, it will match with the data and information resent in the database (Pedrycz 2012). In the case that the data matches with the database, the communication process will start between robots. In the case, data does not matches; the robot will compare the received data with stored data in the database. If it matches with another homogenous robot, the communication starts otherwise it fails. Advantages of robots The development of the robotics technology has been facilitated in various applications in the market. Robots have helped in maintaining different work in the market. The use of the robots has been circulated in various fields including machinery, IT sector and construction sector. The use of the robots has been incread4sed in the market (Ingrand and Ghallab 2014). This technology has decreased the human work pressure in various industries. The use of robots has been facilitated in order to increase production in the industries. Increased efficiency As commented by Brambilla et al. (2013), industrial robots are capable of completing heavy tasks in the industry work environment better than human employee completes. However, robots are capable of performing tasks with higher accuracy level than human beings. This has significantly drawn the attention of organizations for developing robots rather hire a human employee (Bennett and Hauser 2013). Robots are capable of increasing production of industries with a high speed. The work rate of the robot re faster than that of the human being. Higher quality Robots are able to provide the higher quality task to the company. The error rate of the robots is negligible in comparison to that of human work. Robots help in minimizing the human error rate in the industry (Springer 2013). The use of robots produces high-quality products with respect to their standard quality. It also minimizes the time required for completing a task. Longer working hours A human employee has to take breaks for getting rest from work. This creates the distraction from their work and their pace of work minimizes. However, in the case of robots, it can work for 24/7 with 100 % efficiency, therefore, this help in increasing the efficiency and production in the industry. Robots do not take any holiday or having unexpected off for sick (Elkady and Sobh 2012). Increased profitability Robots are capable of increasing the production in an industry. Therefore, this increases the sales of the company and profitability. The supply of the products for customers has been increased that have helped in increasing the sales of the company. Robots help in increasing the profitability of the company in the market. Issues faced due to communication among robots by creating their own language There are various problems faced by different companies due to AI chatter bots developing own language in order to communicate with each other. This problem has been faced by several companies all over the world including Facebook. Several times AI chatterbot of Facebook has been automatically responding to the client within any input data. Therefore, chatter bits are capable of creating their own language might be using AIML language. The use of the AIML language has been creating interest in developing chatterbots. As argued by (), AIML language has made easy for chatter buts to create their own language for self-communication. Big data and artificial intelligence have been maintaining a bi-directional relationship with each other. Artificial intelligence requires machine learning, which requires a large amount of data. The motivation for using the AIML language has been dining in the pattern recognition system. The use of the robotic technology in the organization have decreed the employee of the human labours. The employment if the human being is being replaced by the robots and chatter bits, Therefore, the unemployment ratio if the country has been increasing with the time. Robots are able to provide work in the fashioned way that includes minimal errors with respect to that of human workers. Different artificial intelligence techniques have failed in maintaining big data process. The prediction based on an artificial intelligence algorithm has been created in order to maintain a machined logic behind expressible terms of human beings (Michalski, Carbonell and Mitchell 2013). A machine learns from the algorithm feeder input for working. However, these algorithms cannot hold and understand of data concept. Therefore, a large amount of data and information cannot be input in the algorithm. This has created self-fulfilling strategies for communication among the robots. As argued by (), machine learning can be used for processing big data by using DPA. Therefore, an analysis is done in order to enhance machine learning for processing their own algorithm for self-communication. However, the use of algorithms by robots create risks for the researcher by communication with their own. This might lead to losing in control of the robots and chatterbots. The features of the AIML lan guage implemented in developing chatter bot include ease of implementation of AIML language based on markup language for making easy use of dialogues written in the code (Michalski, Carbonell and Mitchell 2013). The use of robots is done in a various organization in order to minimize the human work in the working place. Summary This can be summarized that the use of the AIML language is required in developing chatterbots. A basic concept of artificial intelligence has been provided in the chapter. The benefits and limitations of the robots in the industry have been depicted in the chapter. The issues due to communication among robots by creating own language have been provided. Methodology Introduction The research has followed a proper methodology in order to complete the project. The design of the research has been based on the technical background of the robotics technology. This chapter discusses the main methodological concept that will be used in this research. The steps to be followed for conducting the research are listed in this chapter. The research methodology helps in maintaining a proper path for following in the research. Research methodology includes philosophy, approach, design, data collection method, limitations and ethical consideration. Some theories and models related to the artificial interference have been taken for the data collection process. Research methodology has helped in maintaining the Research philosophy Research philosophy helps in providing dimension and knowledge of the research. It provides concepts and facts in order to conduct the research. In addition, the proper steps that will be considered while conducting this research will be adopted from this philosophy section of the paper. Three types of philosophy are positivism, interpretivism and realism. Post-positivism philosophy deals with cross-checking specific data for the research. The philosophy focuses on the previous study of the research and the findings (Nolfi, Bongard, Husbands and Floreano 2013). Interpretivism philosophy helps in providing the complex structure of the research. Interpretivism deals with the interpretative study of the research topic. Lastly, the realism philosophy is utilized for considering the real-valued data. The artificial intelligence used in the robotics technology might help in maintaining the research methodology. Communication among the robots might be possible with the help of creating thei r own language. The authenticity of the human convictions and machine learning can be combined to create the positivist philosophy. It deals with the scientific approach towards the maintenance of the research methodology. This research will select positivism philosophy for completing the research. The research will be based on the theoretical and practical perspective. The selected philosophy will help in providing advanced thinking to the research. Positivism philosophy restricts the specialist's part in controlling or assessing the information that prompts minimisation of information errors also. The use of positivism philosophy also helps in connecting the various settings among the aspects which in turn leads to better analysis of the information such that the analysis regarding artificial intelligence can be made efficiently. Research Approach The approach, which is utilized for conducting the research, is termed as the research approach. This helps in providing a structural framework, which is to be followed for conducting the research on artificial intelligence or robotics. The two types of research approach are inductive and deductive approach. Deductive approach focuses on analyzing previous theories and models related to the research. As commented by Magilvy and Thomas, (2012), inductive research approach focus on producing new theories. However, the deductive approach helps in conducting research methodology in a proper manner. Inductive research approach of a study helps in contemplating enough information is not possible. The use of the inductive research approach might not be able to maintaining the reliability of the data and information collected for the research. This research will select deductive approach that help selecting particular methods for the research. The deductive approach helps in maintaining the existing theories and models and collect data from them. However, the deductive approach deals with the adequate knowledge of the research. The present study focuses on the artificial intelligence in order to create a language for a robot to communicate with themselves. The deductive approach will help in deducting all the information that will not be useful for the research. The different components if the robotic technology will be analyzed in the study. Research design The research design focuses on the strategy perceived in order to collect data and information from various sources. The use of research design ensures research problem and map the solution according to it. Informative exploration design helps in creating new theories and models for the collecting data and information related to the research topic including artificial intelligence. It helps in building a framework for proceeding in the research activity. The three types of research design are explanatory, exploratory and descriptive design (Toloie-Eshlaghy et al. 2011). Descriptive research design assists as an observational study that is helpful to find out specific characteristics of population as well as their effects on the variables. Exploratory design help s in recognizing several types of thoughts and considerations in order to finish research study. Similarly, the explanatory research design involves conducting a research while considering various parameters associated to the use of artificial intelligence by the robots in a detailed manner. The researcher has chosen descriptive research design that would be helpful to conduct the research. This research will select descriptive research design as it helps in conduction of the research with methods that are more descriptive by putting detailed information (Geraci 2012). The descriptive design help in providing a complete picture of the whole research methods used. Descriptive design helps in maintaining the longitudinal study of the artificial intelligence in the robotic technology. Data Collection Technique Data collection method is an important aspect for the research methodology. There are two types of data collection method including primary and secondary method. The data collection method helps in providing a proper method for the data collection process in the research. In this research, data and information will be collected from secondary sources including online journals, books, articles, reports and governmental databases. The use of the secondary method will help in providing data and information for the research. Primary data are collected from online survey. Ethical consideration The research will follow all the ethical values and norms in completing the research. The research will access all knowledge related to the robotic technology. Data and information for the research topic will be ethically accessed from online journals and books. The journals will be of published version and after year 2012. The online journals and books will be related to artificial intelligence and robotic technology (Geraci 2012). The access to the government databases has been done legally with proper permission. The results and outcomes of the research will not be published before the completion of the research. The research will follow the Data Protection Act 1998 in order to keep personal data and information secret from others. Research Limitations A research helps in providing proper results and knowledge related to the concerned topic. However, some limitations are faced by a research. In this case, the research will also face some difficulties in the data collection process. Online journals and books might not be available for the researcher. There might be some journals in paid version that cannot be purchased by the researcher due to lack of budget. The language of the journals and books might not be understood by the researcher that will create limitations for the research. Many journals will not be similar t the research topic. The researcher might have a time limitation due t the cross-sectional nature of the research. However, deep analysis of the research will not be done due to unavailability of time for research. Gant chart Milestones in the Research 1st Week 2nd Week 3rd Week 4thWeek 5thWeek 6thWeek 7thWeek Selection of the Topic Collection of Data from secondary sources Preparing the layout Review of Literature Developing plan for the research Selecting appropriate techniques for research Collection of Primary data Data Analysis Interpretation Findings and Discussion Conclusion to the study Preparing Rough Draft Completion of Final Work Figure 3: Gantt Chart (Source: Created by Author) References Bench-Capon, T.J., 2014.Knowledge representation: an approach to artificial intelligence(Vol. 32). Elsevier. Bennett, C.C. and Hauser, K., 2013. Artificial intelligence framework for simulating clinical decision-making: A Markov decision process approach.Artificial intelligence in medicine,57(1), pp.9-19. Bongard, J.C., 2013. Evolutionary robotics.Communications of the ACM,56(8), pp.74-83. Bostrom, N. and Yudkowsky, E., 2014. The ethics of artificial intelligence.The Cambridge handbook of artificial intelligence, pp.316-334. Brady, M., Gerhardt, L.A. and Davidson, H.F. eds., 2012.Robotics and artificial intelligence(Vol. 11). Springer Science Business Media. Brambilla, M., Ferrante, E., Birattari, M. and Dorigo, M., 2013. Swarm robotics: a review from the swarm engineering perspective.Swarm Intelligence,7(1), pp.1-41. Brodie, M.L., Mylopoulos, J. and Schmidt, J.W. eds., 2012.On conceptual modelling: Perspectives from artificial intelligence, databases, and programming languages. Springer Science Business Media. Cohen, P.R. and Feigenbaum, E.A. eds., 2014.The handbook of artificial intelligence(Vol. 3). Butterworth-Heinemann. Deisenroth, M.P., Neumann, G. and Peters, J., 2013. A survey on policy search for robotics.Foundations and Trends in Robotics,2(12), pp.1-142. Dirican, C., 2015. The impacts of robotics, artificial intelligence on business and economics.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,195, pp.564-573. Du, S., Guo, Y., Sanroma, G., Ni, D., Wu, G. and Shen, D., 2015. Building dynamic population graph for accurate correspondence detection.Medical image analysis,26(1), pp.256-267. Elkady, A. and Sobh, T., 2012. Robotics middleware: A comprehensive literature survey and attribute-based bibliography.Journal of Robotics,2012. Frankish, K. and Ramsey, W.M. eds., 2014.The Cambridge handbook of artificial intelligence. Cambridge University Press. Faces Online. (2018). A Robot Tax: Fair Measure Or Unnecessary Hindrance? - Faces Online. [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 Mar. 2018]. Geffner, H. and Bonet, B., 2013. A concise introduction to models and methods for automated planning.Synthesis Lectures on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning,8(1), pp.1-141. Geraci, R.M., 2012.Apocalyptic AI: Visions of heaven in robotics, artificial intelligence, and virtual reality. Oxford University Press. Ghahramani, Z., 2015. Probabilistic machine learning and artificial intelligence.Nature,521(7553), p.452. Gigras, Y. and Gupta, K., 2012. Artificial intelligence in robot path planning.International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN, pp.2231-2307. Ginsberg, M., 2012.Essentials of artificial intelligence. Newnes. Hovy, E., Navigli, R. and Ponzetto, S.P., 2013. Collaboratively built semi-structured content and Artificial Intelligence: The story so far.Artificial Intelligence,194, pp.2-27. Ingrand, F. and Ghallab, M., 2014. Robotics and artificial intelligence: A perspective on deliberation functions.AI Communications,27(1), pp.63-80. Kanal, L. and Kumar, V. eds., 2012.Search in artificial intelligence. Springer Science Business Media. Kober, J. and Peters, J., 2012. Reinforcement learning in robotics: A survey. InReinforcement Learning(pp. 579-610). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Marietto, M.D.G.B., de Aguiar, R.V., Barbosa, G.D.O., Botelho, W.T., Pimentel, E., Frana, R.D.S. and da Silva, V.L., 2013. Artificial intelligence markup language: A brief tutorial. arXiv preprint arXiv:1307.3091. Michalski, R.S., Carbonell, J.G. and Mitchell, T.M. eds., 2013.Machine learning: An artificial intelligence approach. Springer Science Business Media. Navigli, R. and Ponzetto, S.P., 2012. BabelNet: The automatic construction, evaluation and application of a wide-coverage multilingual semantic network.Artificial Intelligence,193, pp.217-250. Nilsson, N.J., 2014.Principles of artificial intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann. Nolfi, S., Bongard, J.C., Husbands, P. and Floreano, D., 2016. Evolutionary Robotics. Pedrycz, W. ed., 2012.Fuzzy modelling: paradigms and practice(Vol. 7). Springer Science Business Media. Pfeifer, R., Lungarella, M. and Iida, F., 2012. The challenges ahead for bio-inspired'soft'robotics.Communications of the ACM,55(11), pp.76-87. Springer, P.J., 2013.Military robots and drones: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. Sutikno, T., Facta, M. and Markadeh, G.A., 2013. Progress in Artificial Intelligence Techniques: from Brain to Emotion.TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control),9(2), pp.201-202. Szegedy, C., Ioffe, S., Vanhoucke, V. and Alemi, A.A., 2017, February. Inception-v4, inception-resnet and the impact of residual connections on learning. InAAAI(Vol. 4, p. 12). Tirgul, C.S. and Naik, M.R., 2016. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering Technology,5(6), pp.1787-1793. Yampolskiy, R.V., 2013. Artificial intelligence safety engineering: Why machine ethics is a wrong approach. InPhilosophy and theory of artificial intelligence(pp. 389-396). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Yang, J.B. and Xu, D.L., 2013. Evidential reasoning rule for evidence combination.Artificial Intelligence,205, pp.1-29. Zang, Y., Zhang, F., Di, C.A. and Zhu, D., 2015. Advances of flexible pressure sensors toward artificial intelligence and health care applications.Materials Horizons,2(2), pp.140-156.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Meaning Of Death Essays - Theatre, Theatre Of The Absurd, Fiction

Meaning Of Death Death is a word that we know and fear, but what exactly does the word death mean to you? The end of life? The end of time? The end of hope? Well?maybe. Some see Death as a messenger sent by god to take away people's lives. For some people, death is the worse of the worse thing of all, but for the protagonists in the plays Amadeus and Waiting for Godot death is something that they do not fear. They actually want to die or use death as a tool to achieve a certain goal. Although this might sound odd, there is a solid logic behind it. While death is a significant theme in both plays, the meaning of death between the two plays varies. In the play Waiting for Godot, Estragon and Vladimir were trapped in the days simply waiting for Godot. Throughout the two days of the play, most of the things that happened on the second day were identical to those happened on the first. The days always began with Estragon coming back from the ditch and meeting Vladimir; Estragon tries to take or takes off the boots; Pozzo and Lucky comes in; the idea of hanging themselves and leaving; the Boy comes in and tell them that Mr.Godot can't come but will come for sure tomorrow; Estragon tries to sleep; and then the day is over and Estragon goes back to the ditch. Their days were too boring and repetitive, and they were struggling to kill time by finding something to do: VLADIMIR: That passed the time. ESTRAGON: It ould have passed in any case. VLADIMIR: Yes, but not so rapidly. Pause. ESTRAGON: What do we do now? VLADIMIR: I don't know. (Beckette, P.32) On both days in the play, Estragon wanted to leave the country road and go somewhere else, but when Vladimir reminds him that they are Waiting for Godot, Estragon then changed his mind and stayed with Vladimir to wait for Godot: ESTRAGON: Let's go. VLADIMIR: We can't. ESTRAGON: Why not? VLADIMIR: We're waiting for Godot. ESTRAGON: (despairingly). Ah! Pause. (Beckette, P.31) In addition, the two bums wanted to hang themselves on both days, but on the first day they were afraid that if one died the other would be left alone, on the second day the rope broke while they were testing it to see if it was strong enough to hang them. This idea of hanging themselves was Estragon's: VLADIMIR: It's for the kidneys. (Silence. Estragon looks attentively at the tree.) What do we do now? ESTRAGON: Wait. VLADIMIR: Yes, but while waiting. ESTRAGON: What about hanging ourselves? VALDIMIR: Hmm. It'd give us an erection. ESTRAGON: (highly excited). An erection! (Beckette, P.12) This is because he couldn't stand the boredom and he wanted a form of change very badly. They seem to be trapped in the repetitive process of waiting for Godot, and they believe that they will be either happier when they hang themselves or when Godot eventually arrives to save them. Although Godot is referred to as a person in the play, we can certainly think of Godot as death itself, and that is what the two friends are waiting for. Still, death is considered to be a change and that's what Vladimir and Estragon wants. No matter what/who Godot is, Godot will still be the one who can give them this change that they so desperately need. Therefore, the result of both choices is death. In this case, death is considered to be a change or an escape from suffering in life, and both Estragon and Vladimir were not afraid of death, but rather they were hoping that death will come and end their suffer. The reason why Estragon and Vladimir have to wait for Godot (death) instead of killing themse lves is because they don't have the ability to die together. If only one of them dies, the other will be left alone and not be able to die. For example, if Estragon wants to hang himself and die, Vladimir had to lift him up so he could reach the tree and tie the rope; but after Estragon dies, there would be no one to lift Vladimir up the tree so he could hang himself. Although this reason is not mentioned in the play, this is the only

Monday, March 9, 2020

Rrl of My Classmte as Example Essays

Rrl of My Classmte as Example Essays Rrl of My Classmte as Example Essay Rrl of My Classmte as Example Essay Various eye problems have been associated with overexposure to sunlight. CAUSE Ultraviolet Ray WHY? People are unaware of what UVR can cause to their vision/eye sight. WHY? Insufficient spread of information to the public. Sub Problem How can we completely inform the public about the dangers caused by the UVR? INTRODUCTION Another radiation from the sun can harm not only your skin but also your eyes. Extended exposure to the sun’s UV rays has been linked to eye damage, which includes the cataract that clouds the eye’s natural lens that can cause to temporary vision loss. The purpose of this project is to make the public aware of what UV ray can cause to their vision. To protect the eyes from harmful solar radiation, sunglasses should block 100 percent of UV rays. A good quality of sunglasses such as Ray-Ban is a certified item for consumption that manufactures variety of glasses and likewise lenses that deals with overexposure to sun. This variety of lenses indicates the amount of protection it can give to the eyes. It includes the tints in the lenses that keep UV ray from reaching the eyes. Manufacturers add certain colors that block UVB light. Amber and brown tints are especially useful at absorbing UV light; however, any light-blocking tint will help prevent eye damage. Manufacturers either use colored glass or polycarbonates to make these lenses or soak polycarbonate lenses in a tint solution. Sunglasses can also have extra UV coating, although these arent necessarily just for sunglasses, as the coatings are clear and can be applied to regular glasses. The best tint for optimizing performance is a matter of personal preference. Sunglasses labeled UV-400 should offer good protection from the sun. One easy way to keep your eyes protected is to remember to push your sunglasses up on your nosethe closer the lenses are to the eye, the more protection you get. If youre going to be in a high-sun environment, wrap-around shades are a good choice. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Most people know of the dangers of the sun to our skin. But many do not know that too much sun can also damage the eyes. Eyes are sensitive instruments which can easily become injured or diseased from exposure to sunlight, because of the ultraviolet (UV) rays of the sun. Ultraviolet rays are high energy, and are invisible to the human eye because they are outside the spectrum of colors that a human eye can see. Eye diseases are associated with exposure to sunlight Exposure to sunlight can cause damage to the eyes in both the short and long term. In the short term, exposure to sunlight can result in: * Mild irritation: May cause symptoms such as excessive blinking, swelling or difficulty seeing in strong sunlight. * Photo Keratoconjunctivitis: Photo keratoconjunctivitis is a condition similar to snow blindness or welders flash burn. It occurs when the sensitive, skin-like tissues of the eyeball become sunburnt. Individuals suffering from the condition are likely to experience severe pain, and possibly temporary blindness, for 12 days. The condition is temporary and will resolve naturally. In the long term, exposure to sunlight is associated with a range of eye diseases, including: * Eye cancer (also known as squamous cell carcinoma of the eye): A rare condition characterised by the growth of cancerous cells on the surface of the eye. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that5070% of eye cancers around the world are caused by sun exposure. The risk of developing eye cancer increases with lifetime exposure to sunlight. The incidence is highest in countries closest to the equator. * Cortical and posterior subcapsular cataract: Cataracts are characterised by the increasing opaqueness of the lens of the eye. It can lead to impaired eye sight and, in severe cases, to blindness. The WHO estimate 5% of cortical cataract disease is caused by sun exposure. In Australia, the Australian Cancer Council estimates that up to 10% of all cataracts are associated with excessive sun exposure. A study of a United States population found that individuals who had high levels of sun exposure were about 1. 5 times more likely to develop cortical or posterior subcapsular cataracts than those who had low sun exposure, while those with moderate sun exposure were about 1. 2 times more likely to develop each of these types of cataracts. * Pterygium: Pterygium is characterised by a fleshy growth on the eyes surface. The WHO estimates that 4070% of the global burden from this disease is attributable to sun exposure. A study conducted in Victoria reported that 43. 6% of pterygium cases were attributable to sun exposure. * Age related macular degeneration: Based on laboratory studies showing thatUV rays cause retinal damage in rats, scientists believe that exposure to UV rays contributes to the degeneration of eyesight which occurs naturally with ageing. How UVR Impacts the Eye The various tissue layers of the eye absorb the wavebands of UVR to different extents. The longer the wavelength, the deeper the penetration of ocular tissue. Of the radiation from sunlight, UV-B has the greatest impact on the eye. Overexposure can result in photokeratitis or, in rare cases, solar maculopathy. Studies show that chronic exposure to UV-B can also cause cortical cataracts. UV-A is considered a greater threat to produce skin cancer than damage the eye. While the ozone layer filters UV-C from the sun, a welders arc can generate toxic dosages of this potent waveband. Since UV-C is the shortest waveband of the ultraviolet spectrum, the corneal epithelium will absorb it. A welders flash burn therefore will cause a punctate epitheliopathy. Environmental factors and UV exposure The level of UV radiation varies due to a range of environmental factors,including: * Time of day: UV radiation levels are highest when the sun is higher in the sky (in the middle of the day, between 10am and 2pm). * Geographic location: UV radiation levels increase with increasing proximity to the equator, and increasing altitude. * Cloud cover: UV radiation levels are higher when there is no cloud cover, although UV radiation from the sun is present even on cloudy days. Features of the surrounding landscape: As UV radiation from the sun is reflected more or less effectively by some surfaces than others, exposure to UV radiation is also influenced by features of the surrounding landscape. Snow is a particularly reflective surface, and as much as 80% of UV radiation will be reflected back (compared to about 10% for water and grass). Dry beach sand reflects about 15% of UV radiat ion, while the foam in sea water reflects 25% of UV radiation. * Ozone protection: A layer of ozone forms a protective layer around the earth and blocks much of the sun’s harmful rays, including much UV radiation. Ozone levels vary between places and times of the day. The origin of UV protection Most of the UV protection comes from the lenses of UV protection sunglasses. Special coatings on the lenses material during manufacturing are the origin of UV protection. The exact lens coating is named UV treatment, which adds this capability to regular lenses. Always select UV protection sunglasses with labels specifying UV absorption up to 400nm, which is equivalent to 100% UV absorption. Color, style and cost have no direct help in offering sunlight protection. Many people would think that lens color is closely related to the degree of UV protection the lenses can offer. A classical example is dark sunglasses which had dominated the sun wear industry for many years. In fact, lens darkness does not determine directly the UV filtration ability. It is the lens material and additive coating that matters. Measuring Ultraviolet Rays In the United States, the risk for UV exposure is measured using the UV Index. Developed by the NWS and EPA, the UV Index predicts each days ultraviolet radiation levels on a simple 1 to 11+ scale. In addition to publishing the UV Index daily, the EPA also issues a UV Alert when the level of solar UV radiation that day is expected to be unusually high. UV Protection Recommendations| UV Index| Risk Level| Recommendations| 2 or less| Low| 1. Wear sunglasses. 2. If you burn easily, use sunscreen with an SUN PROTECTION FACTOR of 15+. | 3 5| Moderate| 1. Wear sunglasses. 2. Cover up and use sunscreen. 3. Stay in the shade near midday, when the sun is strongest. | 6 7| High| 1. Wear a hat and sunglasses. 2. Cover up and use sunscreen. 3. Reduce time in the sun between 10 a. m. and 4 p. m. | 8 10| Very high| 1. Wear a hat and sunglasses. 2. Cover up and use sunscreen. 3. Minimize sun exposure between 10 a. m. and 4 p. m. | 11+| Extreme| 1. Wear a hat and sunglasses. 2. Apply sunscreen (SPF 15+) liberally every two hours. 3. Try to avoid sun exposure between 10 a. m. and 4 p. m. | | How do you protect your eyes from UV radiation? Protecting the eyes from UV radiation from the sun is the only way to reduce the risk of eye damage. Staying out of the sun at all times is impossible, so it is important that you know how to protect your eyes when they are exposed to sunlight, and about the times at which the suns rays are most dangerous. Steps for protecting against exposure to UV radiation from the sun include: Wear sunglasses when exposed to sunlight Every time an individual goes out in sunlight, they shouldwear sunglasses that meet the Australian standards. Sunglasses provide a barrier between UV radiation and the eyes,thus preventing the harmful effects of UV radiation. The Australian Cancer Council recommends that individuals wear sunglasses with wrap-around (i. e. side) protection complying with Australian Standard AS/ANZ 1067:2003 (these standards outline how manufacturers should make sunglasses and which materials they should use). Sunglasses which meet the Australian Standard will be labelled with AS/ANZ 1607:2003 and a category number. In addition, the lenses of the sunglasses should offer a high level of UV protection, and be labelled UV400, or EPF9 or 10. Wear a broad-brimmed hat when exposed to sunlight A hat with a broad brim offers better protection than a cap, as it also blocks sunlight from the side and back. Such a hat can effectively block about 40% of UV rays from reaching the eye. It not only protects the eyes from exposure to sunlight, but also the ear, neck and face. Exposureat these sitescan increase the risk of cancer. Avoid exposure to sunlight as much as possible, particularly in the middle of the day Levels of UV radiation in sunlight are highest in the middle of the day (10am to 2pm), and thus exposure to sunlight is most dangerous at this time. Limit your exposure to sunlight at this time by staying indoors, wearing protective clothing or using shaded areas. Sit or walk in the shade The shade provided by trees and canopies does not offer full protection against UV radiation, but staying out of full sunlight does offer considerable protection against UV rays. Seek shady areas when outside, particularly when outside for extended periods or in the middle of the day. Avoid indoor sun tanning lamps Indoor tanning lamps emit UV radiation and can cause damage to the eyes and skin. Avoid indoor tanning if you wish to protect your eyes from their damaging effects. It is also important to realise that childrens eyes are susceptible to damage from UV exposure (even though this damage may not produce symptoms until they reach adulthood). In order to protect childrens eyes, parents and guardians should provide children with appropriate protective eyewear and a broad-brimmed hat, and limit their exposure to unlight, particularly in the middle of the day. When to Wear Sunglasses? Wear sunglasses outdoors, particularly in the following circumstances: * During summer: The level of UVR at noon in summer can be more than three times as high as in winter. More importantly, the levels of UVB, the type of UVR that causes the most damage, can be as much as ten times higher (which is why sunburn takes such a short time in summer). * Around noon: (1PM during daylight saving). Seventy percent of the harmful UVB radiation that is received each day occurs within three hours either side of this time. On the beach or boating: There are usually few buildings or structures to block the sun or sky, so people are exposed to direct and scattered radiation from the whole sky as well as reflections from water. * Skiing at high altitude: Solar UVR increases with altitude and at 2000 metres (typical of Australian ski fields) can be as much as thirty percent higher than at sea level. The high reflectivity of snow worsens the problem, so that the UVR dose to the eye can be quite large. Consequently, good eye protection while skiing is very important. Materials and coatings of sunglass lenses Currently, there is a wide variety of materials for sunglass lenses. Thanks to the advancements in the lens technology, different people can now choose lenses that cater individual needs. In general, sunglass lenses are made of either plastic or glass. Plastic lenses are lightweight and come in different tints. Plastic sunglass lenses can block 80% of UV rays and thus provide good protection from sunlight. While offering excellent optical quality, glass lenses are more susceptible to scratches. High index lenses High index lenses are made of the material of high index plastic. This kind of lenses can block out 100% harmful UV rays in the sunlight. In regular, high index lenses are applied with reflective coating. This is because the high index feature also increases lens reflection on the surface. Due to the valuable optical feature of this material, high-index lenses are thinner and thinner than regular plastic lenses. Typically, lenses made of a high-index plastic can be 50% thinner than traditional plastic lenses. Patients with a severe refractive error are perfect target users. Polycarbonate lenses Polycarbonate lenses are one of the most common types of sunglass lenses. Besides features such as lightweight and shatter-resistance, polycarbonate lenses provide natural 100% UV protection. These lenses are perfect for active adults and children. Sunglasses using polycarbonate lenses can offer incomparable eye protection and UV protection. Photochromic lenses Photochromic lenses can provide appropriate lens darkness according to the surrounding environment. This type of lens always flatters people who need to frequently alternate between indoor and outdoor environments. Without the availability of photochromic glasses, vision impaired patients need to remove sunglasses and change to prescription eyeglasses when they move indoors, or vice versa. Polarized lenses Polarized lenses are specially designed for outdoor wear. These lenses can greatly reduce glare by blocking light reflection on a flat surface. Regular participants of outdoor activities including driving, golfing and skiing can significantly benefit from polarized lenses. With the help of polarized sunglasses, the wearers will nearly be free from annoying glare. Aspheric lenses Aspheric lenses are particularly suitable for people with a heavy prescription. With an evenly distributed thickness, this type of lenses will not bring an unwanted look because of excessively thick lenses. These lenses have different curves and are able to reduce or eliminate spherical aberrations. And they also help reduce the distortion of the wearer’s eyes. Scratch-resistant coating In addition to different lens materials, there are still types of coatings. In order to avoid scratches, sunglass lenses can be treated with a scratch resistant coating (SRC), which is usually included in polycarbonate and high index lenses by default. This lens coating is especially helpful for mischievous kids who may frequently drop the glasses. Anti-reflective coating Another common coating is anti-reflective coating (ARC), which is applied in some lenses in order to reduce reflective rays. While eliminating unwanted glare during outdoor activities, lenses with this type of coating are more likely to scratch. Actually, these two types of coatings are mutually exclusive, which means one specific lens cannot have both of them. Lens tints Lens tint is another common issue. With various tint options, sunglass wearers can choose their favoritecolor in order to get distinctive looking. However, only plastic lenses can effectively and uniformly absorb tints. In contrast to high index lenses, polycarbonate lenses are harder to tint. Reference mydr. com. au/skin-hair/eyes-in-the-sun

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Literature review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Literature review - Essay Example of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in 2006 reported that nursing colleges and universities turned away more than 32,000 qualified applicants due to a shortage of nurse educators† (Ciraola, 2008). Shortage of experienced nurses directly affects the quality of service at the healthcare organizations for the worse. â€Å"More and more nurses are approaching retirement age. We are losing a very large cohort of our most experienced nurses† (Link cited in Ciraola, 2008). Despite the fact that many students opt for nursing in the present age, it is not helping much as the population is growing at a much faster pace to belittle the effect produced by increased nursing students. Risks created by the shortage of nurses for healthcare organizations include problems of retention and recruitment of nurses, decline in the quality of service, and work-overload on individual nurses. Cultural diversity has necessitated the acquisition of new types of skills by the nursing leaders in the US that include but are not limited to knowledge of and competence in speaking multiple languages, knowledge of the norms and values of different cultures, and training and education of the nurses to customize their skills and talents to the needs of the American healthcare